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Endoscopy refers to the examination of internal organs and cavities of the body using a small, flexible fibre optic tube with a light and camera that is inserted into the body to relay live colour images to the medical team. These procedures can be used to diagnose patients or to assist with surgeries. Having the ability to look inside the patient can often be the quickest and easiest way to identify what is wrong and to start treatment, and sometimes treatment can be made at the same time as diagnosis.

‘’Endoscopy’’ is a general term that refers to a number of different ‘endoscopic’ procedures, depending on the area of the body that needs to be looked at. This is why the endoscopy team all specialise in examining different areas of the body.

Below is a list of endoscopy procedures that are typically performed in our endoscopy department:

Upper endoscopy, also known as gastroscopy or Oesophogo gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) 

  • An endoscopic examination of the oesophagus (gullet) and stomach
  • This is used for investigating indigestion, reflux or regurgitation symptoms, abdominal pain and coeliac disease (wheat allergy)

Lower endoscopy, specifically ‘colonoscopy’ 

  • An endoscopic examination of the lower bowel
  • This is used for investigating diarrhoea, rectal bleeding and looking for polyps or cancer in the bowel.

Lower endoscopy, specifically ‘flexible sigmoidoscopy’

  • Is also an endoscopic examination of the lower bowel like a colonoscopy.
  • The examination is limited to looking at the bowel situated on the left of the body. In contrast, colonoscopy looks at the whole bowel on the right and left side of the body.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy is often used to diagnose and treat haemorrhoids (piles)


  • An endoscopic examination of the bladder.
  • This is used to look for causes of haematuria (blood in the wee)

Endoscopy Procedures

  • Colonscopy
  • Cystoscopy
  • Gastroscopy
  • Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
  • Combined Gastroscopy and Colonscopy
  • Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopy

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